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BBC隨身英語: 如果物種繼續消失會對人類社會帶來影響嗎?

xyrxm 于2019-10-24發布 l 已有人瀏覽
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科學家說動植物種類的減少危急人類生活及環境的健康。本期《隨身英語》談論生物多樣性的減少和生態系統的變化。
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Loss of biodiversity affects human society

生物多樣性減少給人類社會帶來影響

If a species of bee disappears forever or a particular plant is extinct, what does it have to do with us humans? Well, according to a team of international scientists, biodiversity is dropping below levels considered safe for the wellbeing of human societies.

如果一種蜂類永遠消失了,或一種特定的植物滅絕了,這和我們人類有什么關系呢?好吧,根據一個國際科學家小組的研究,生物多樣性正在下降到被認為對人類社會福祉的安全水平以下。

The issue is that everything is interconnected and ecosystems support our societies because they provide us with, for example, food, fibres and fuels.

問題是,一切都是相互聯系的,生態系統支持著我們的社會,因為我們從中獲取了食物、纖維和燃料。

If species go on disappearing, this can interfere with vital processes such as crop pollination and the decomposition of waste.

如果物種繼續消失,這可能會影響作物授粉和廢物分解等重要過程。

A framework which defines the environmental limits within which humans can operate - called planetary boundaries - says that losing more than 10% of the biodiversity in an area places the local ecosystem at risk. Ecosystems are all different but this percentage is considered a good measure of safety.

一個定義人類活動環境極限的體系——行星邊界——指出,一個地區失去10%以上的生物多樣性會使當地的生態系統處于危險之中。生態系統各不相同,但這個百分比是一個合理的安全線。

A study published in the magazine Science suggests that 58% of the world's land surface already falls below this level. These areas house 71% of the global population.

發表在《科學》雜志上的一項研究表明,全球58%的陸地表面的生物多樣性水平已經低于10%。這些地區占全球人口的71%。

Professor Andy Purvis, from Imperial College London and the Natural History Museum, is one of the authors of the study. He says: "Once we're the wrong side of the boundary it doesn't mean everything goes wrong immediately, but there is a markedly higher risk that things will go badly wrong."

倫敦帝國理工學院和自然歷史博物館的安迪·珀維斯教授是這項研究的作者之一。他表示:“一旦我們走錯了邊界,并不意味著一切錯誤會立即出現,但出現嚴重錯誤的風險明顯更高。”

The researchers found that grasslands, savannas and shrub lands were most affected by biodiversity loss on average.

研究人員發現,草原、稀樹草原和灌木地平均受生物多樣性損失的影響最大。

Purvis hopes this report can be a wake-up call to those who design policies. Here's his warning: "Decision-makers worry a lot about economic recessions, but an ecological recession could have even worse consequences - and the biodiversity damage we've had means we're at risk of that happening. Until and unless we can bring biodiversity back up, we're playing ecological roulette."

珀維斯希望這份報告能給那些制定政策的人敲響警鐘。他警告說:“決策者非常擔心經濟衰退,但生態衰退可能帶來更糟糕的后果——我們所遭受的生物多樣性破壞意味著我們將面臨更嚴重的后果。除非我們能夠恢復生物多樣性,否則我們就等于在玩生態輪盤賭。”

 

詞匯表

species

(動植物的)種,物種

extinct

消失的,滅絕的

biodiversity

生物多樣性

interconnected

(兩個或多個事物)互相聯系的

ecosystem

生態系統

interfere

影響

pollination

植物授粉

decomposition

分解

framework

框架,體系

planetary boundaries

地球界限(概念)

land surface

大地表面

Natural History Museum

自然歷史博物館

grassland

草原,草場

savanna

稀樹草原

shrub land

灌木叢林

decision-maker

決策者

ecological recession

生物衰退

ecological roulette

生態輪盤賭

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